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Elijah Murphy
Elijah Murphy

Experience Linux with KNOPPIX Live - A Bootable Collection of GNU/Linux Software


KNOPPIX (/ˈknɒpɪks/ KNOP-iks)[2] is an operating system based on Debian designed to be run directly from a CD / DVD (Live CD) or a USB flash drive (Live USB), one of the first live operating system distributions (just after Yggdrasil Linux). Knoppix was developed by, and named after, Linux consultant Klaus Knopper.[3] When starting a program, it is loaded from the removable medium and decompressed into a RAM drive. The decompression is transparent and on-the-fly.


Although KNOPPIX is primarily designed to be used as a Live CD, it can also be installed on a hard disk like a typical operating system. Computers that support booting from USB devices can load KNOPPIX from a live USB flash drive or memory card.




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It was also possible to set up a "persistent home directory", where any documents or settings written to the user's home directory would automatically be redirected to a hard drive or removable media, which could be automatically mounted on bootup. A single file, knoppix.img, was cached on the rewritable media and used to simulate a file system into which files were written for later use. This allowed the user to transparently write to their home directory.


Knoppix is a 32-bit Debian Linux based distro, but recent releases (including the latest version 7.6) have also been equipped with a 64-bit kernel on the DVD edition, where it will automatically boot up for 64-bit computers, or by using the boot option knoppix64 manually in the command-line prompt, while knoppix will boot up the 32-bit kernel. Neither PAE nor 64-bit applications are supported by Knoppix, and more than 4GB of system memory can only be used with a 64-bit kernel.


The DVD edition of Knoppix can also be loaded onto a USB flash drive, with flash-knoppix under the Knoppix system, such that "the KNOPPIX Live System starts and runs about factor 5 faster from USB flash disk than from CD or DVD!".[9] Besides that, the experimental UEFI support is provided for USB flash drive rather than DVD media. 32-bit UEFI firmware can only boot up the 32-bit kernel, while 64-bit UEFI firmware can only boot up the 64-bit kernel. The text interface for UEFI is similar with it for BIOS, one can also press key F2 and F3 to access information on boot options.


Knoppix 8.5 was a DVD version that was not available for download, but was published as an exclusive version only bundled with a physical edition of Linux-Magazin[18] or LinuxUser.[19] Version 8.5 no longer includes Systemd, which was replaced by elogind. Spectre and Meltdown kernel vulnerabilities have been mitigated.[20]


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You can download for free the latest version of the CD (700 MB) or DVD (4.14 GB). You can also save yourself the trouble of downloading this large file and it burning to disk by buying it for as little as $1.95 (worldwide shipping). Simply follow this link: download / buy page. When you buy a disk we get a small commission that goes towards paying for and running this Knoppix.net site.


Im trying to recover some data from my friends laptop, since it wont boot from the harddisk anymore. From the knoppix cd i can find harddrive but when i try to access it im asked for a password. However dont know the password I have tried the password from his windows login but that doesnt work. Is there another way to access the drive so i dont have to use a password? If possible i would like to avoid removing the harddrive from the laptop. The installed OS is win7


Several years and many improvements later, Knoppix is still getting thejob done. "There are a lot of live CDs out there these days," says KyleRankin, author of the newly released Knoppix Hacks, Second Edition(O'Reilly, US $34.99). "But I believe that Knoppix, especially with all ofits current features, is still the best all-around live CD."In the new edition of his book, Rankin shows readers how to fully use allof the major features of the latest versions of Knoppix, includingremastering. "It's been some years since I wrote the initial 'KnoppixHacks' book," notes Rankin. "Since then, Knoppix has had a number ofadvances, most specifically in the addition of UnionFS (now AuFS) whichallowed a user to 'write' to the live CD just like it was a hard drivewhile it was booted. This alone opened up a whole new world of uses forKnoppix and made some hacks already in the book even easier."Knoppix Hacks offers a collection of tips and techniques for using theenormous amount of software Knoppix offers--not just to work and play, butalso to troubleshoot, repair, upgrade, and disinfect your system withouthaving to install a thing. The book includes scores of hacks covering boththe standard Knoppix live CD and the feature-rich DVD "Maxi" distribution(included with this book). Readers will learn how to:Investigate features of the KDE desktop and its Internet applicationsSave settings and data between reboots with persistent storageaUse Knoppix as a system administration multitool to replace failedservers and moreUse the CD/DVD as a rescue disc to repair filesystems or a system thatwon't bootRescue Windows systems with Knoppix to back up files and settings, hackthe registry, and moreExplore other live CDs based on KnoppixUse Knoppix to automatically detect and configure hardwareRemaster Knoppix to include favorite software and custom brandingKyle Rankin is a system administrator for Quinstreet, Inc., the currentpresident of the North Bay Linux Users Group, and the author of KnoppixHacks, Knoppix Pocket Reference and the upcoming Linux Multimedia Hacks.Kyle has been using Linux in one form or another since early 1998. In hisfree time he does pretty much the same thing he does at work--works withLinux.


The ISO images for Owl are available from the Openwall FTP mirrors, such as via the links below (which use a specific fast mirror). The precreated ISO images for Knoppix and CentOS are available directly from download.openvz.org/livecd/ or any of the download mirrors.


After downloading the image, you have to burn it to the actual media, i.e. a CD-R or CD-RW disk. The process depends on the actual OS and CD burning software that you have, and the exact details are out of scope of this article.


With the Knoppix (and CentOS?) CDs, upon successful boot, a browser window with some helpful hints will appear to help you start using OpenVZ. The latest version of that document is also available on this wiki: Getting started with OpenVZ live CD.


A number of VEs that you can create using this live CD greatly depends on the amount of RAM your machine has, since the system uses RAM instead of a hard disk. On a 1 gigabyte RAM machine you can create about 5 VEs. To work around this, you have to have a disk partition mounted to /vz/private/ for CentOS-based CD and to /var/lib/vz/private for KNOPPIX-based CD.


Checkpointing (and consequently live migration) doesn't work on KNOPPIX LiveCD at the moment due to OpenVZ Bug #606.You can work around it by mounting some filesystem (ext2, ext3, tmpfs) to /var/lib/vz/private directory.On CentOS-based LiveCD tmpfs is mounted on this directory automatically during the booting.


The live system is a full install of the Owl userland, including networking clients, servers, as well as "development" tools and libraries (C, C++). It also includes installable packages, the installer program, full source code, and the build environment. Unfortunately, it does not include pre-created container templates, but you may either configure networking (with "setup") and download a pre-created template to RAM, or you may use "make vztemplate" to create a new template of the Owl userland right on the CD-booted system.


Abstract:ParallelKnoppix is a live CD based on Knoppix, which is also a live CD,based on the Debian Linux Distribution. ParallelKnoppix will let us create alinux cluster equipped with parallel programming tools/libraries such asMPI in a couple of minutes. It saves a lot of time that we spend inconfiguration of the computing environment. The existing environment isnot disturbed using ParallelKnoppix, as it is a Live CD. Only on the masternode a directory is created that can be deleted after reboot if you want._________________ _________________ _________________ Introduction"ParallelKnoppix is a re-master of Knoppix that allows setting up acluster of machines for parallel processing using the LAM-MPI and/or MPICHimplementations of MPI. Getting the cluster up and running takes less than15 minutes, if the machines have PXE network cards." --> from BackgroundClustering is one of the cheapest techniques to achieve Parallelism.Clustering by using linux is one of the linux powers. The universities andorganization mimic super computing by connecting PCs through EthernetCards under Linux. Linux is highly adopted by scientific communityto do their research work as linux is loaded with a number of scientifictools such as LAM, PI, PVM and many more. So linux is best suited forparallel computing. But the problem is scientist and programmers have alot to do with some pre-configuration of the linux environment. This makesthere task slow and complex. The problem of configuration becomes evenworse if the existing environment is non-linux (that is windows) basedenvironment.Now linux gurus solved this problem and they have developed Live CDs. Now theresearcher can choose a live CD to do some parallel programming withoutdoing the long long configuration and the cluster is ready within a coupleof minutes (7 - 8) minutes.One of the Live CD for parallel programming is ParallelKnoppix.Some other Live CDs for Parallel Computing are BCCD and ClusterKnoppix. DescriptionJust like its predecessor (that is Knoppix) ParallelKnoppix will detect allthe hardware and peripheral automatically. I have tested it on D865GBFIntel board a PIV board and Intel 810C a PIII board and ParallelKnoppixconfigured all the hardware automatically nothing need to be done. Thecomputers that are configured using ParallelKnoppix share a commondirectory, which is created on the master node by NFS (network file system).The master node is booted from the CD and the slaves are booted over the network(DHCP running on master node). The slaves have PXE enabled bios with PXEcompliant NICs.Each and every service needed for LAM/MPI is configured automatically(LAM/MPI is a message passing interface specification used for parallelcomputing).Like DHCP, NFS, SSH (password less logins) and you are ready to experimentMPI programs plus some other parallel applications.The setup of ParallelKnoppix is not very secure as the live CD passwordboth for a user and super user (root) are publicly known any one who hassome knowledge of ParallelKnoppix will get access to the ParallelKnoppixCluster. Actually the ease of setup is obtained by some compromising somesecurity. As there is a trade off between ease of use and security. What is PXE boot?PXE boot is an acronym for Preboot Execution Environment boot. PXE is atechnology that is used to boot a PC remotely through a network. PXE issupported by the system BIOS and the network interface card need to be PXEcompliant. What to do if your NIC is not PXE compliant?You have to put ether boot images or burn a cd using theimages.ROM-o-matic.net dynamically generates Etherboot ROM images. -o-matic.net/ Downloading ParrallelKnoppixISO file downloadFTP exact link exact link download -2004-12-16.iso.md5Check the home page if theabove links expiresAfter downloading the ISO images, check the MD5 checksums for the ISOimages to ensure that your download was successful. Do this by running themd5sum program from a shell prompt against your ISO images and comparingthe values returned against the md5 file (link is below for download). Thefollowing illustrates the correct syntax for the md5sum command.md5sum "isofilename"In the above command, replace "isofilename" with the correct file name.If you are for some reason not using Linux, then use the md5Summer aWindows MD5sum generator, below is the link. Note: writing the ISOs to CD requires a program such as cdrecord. How it works?There is a nice tutorial full of step by step screen shots of theconfiguration process below is the link to the tutorial.Parallel Knoppix tutorial html version Parallel Knoppix tutorial pdf version If you exported your CD Rom to the nodes it will easily accommodate 50nodes but not more than 50 nodes are tested. I actually tested only 5nodes my self. What to do if multiple DHCP is running?"If using this at a university (like I do), you're likely toencounter the existence of an official DHCP server, and possibly a PXEserver. When you try to boot the nodes using the terminal server, thenodes will often boot from the pre-existing PXE server, and they willoften get their IP addresses from the official server, not the DHCP serverrunning on the computer that was booted from the ParallelKnoppix CD. Thesolution I have so far is to physically disconnect the computers to beused as nodes from the pre-existing PXE and/or DHCP servers, or else toget help from the administrators to temporarily disable those servers. Ifanyone knows a more elegant solution, I'd like to hear about it. I thinkit involves messing around with miniroot.gz, and using rom-o-matic tocreate the PXE boot ROM. Too horrible for further contemplation..., atleast for me." --> from How it works (summary)The ParrallelKnoppix Live CD is used to boot a master node. On the booted masternode a script is executed which sets up a DHCP server, to share a commonworking directory to all nodes using NFS, public keys are generated forSSH to work properly (password less logins) needed for LAM. After the DHCPmaster node is running the slave nodes are booted using PXEboot. After the successful booting the sample directory of programs ispasted to the NFS shared common directory and parallel programs areexecuted in parallel on multiple PCs. My experienceI am an undergraduate student of computer science and I was given aproject to solve a mathematical problem using MPI in parallel computinglab. I chooses ParallelKnoppix as an alternate to demonstrate my MPIprogram in Linux environment. The master node is booted usingthe ParallelKnoppix CD some time during booting it will ask you the resolutionjust enter "6" because it is the maximum resolution modesupported. My master node was booted I run Setup ParallelKnoppix script byK>ParallelKnoopixx>Setup ParallelKnoppix (see the above tutorial). Afterthe script has created DHCP server I turned on my slave nodes and let themboot using PXE. After that all the nodes are successfully booted.I copy my program to the "parallel_knoppix_working" directory and thenusing a terminal I run my mpi program in parallel that's it.For compilation I usempicc myprogram.c -o myprogram.binFor execution I usempirun C myprogram.bin Conclusion"The ParallelKnoppix CD provides a very simple and rapid means ofsetting up a cluster of heterogeneous PCs of the IA-32 architecture. It isnot intended to provide a stable cluster for multiple users, rather is atool for rapid creation of a cluster for individual use. The CD itself ispersonalizable, and the configuration and working files can be re-usedover time, so it can provide a long-term solution for an individualuser." From ParallelKnoppix Tutorial By Michael Creel ReferencesHomepage of ParallelKnoppix High Performance Linux Clusters with OSCAR, Rocks, OpenMosix, and MPI ByJoseph D. Sloan,Publisher: O'Reilly Pub Date: November 2004 K N O P P I XHomepages: ://www.Knoppix.com Website -en.html ROM-o-matic.net dynamically generates Etherboot ROM images. -o-matic.net/Discussion Paper on Parallel Knoppix By Michael Creel (14th October 2004): A detailed tutorial with many screenshots that shows how to useParallelKnoppix Michael Creel (15th December 2004): LAM/MPI Parallel Computing -mpi.org/LAM/MPI User's Guide:A complete user's guide for LAM/MPI. Recommended reading for all users ofLAM/MPI. -mpi.org/download/files/7.1.1-user.pdf Talkback form for this articleEvery article has its own talkback page. On this page you can submit a comment or look at comments from other readers: talkback page -- : Majid Hameed 2005-01-11, generated by lfparser version 2.52


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