Contreras, Grosser, and Ver Strate, 2008,"The Use of the Fully-grouted Method for Piezometer Installation, " Geotechnical News, pp 30 - 37, Vol 26, June 2008. This paper by Barr Engineering provides results of extensive controlled lab and field tests.
How can a piezometer operate when it is sealed in grout? Gordon McKenna, an early advocate of the method, explains it this way: "The key to the success of the grouted-in installation method is that modern diaphragm-type piezometer tips require only a very small fluid volume change for pressure equalization, and the grout can transmit this volume over the short distance from the formation to the tip quickly." (McKenna, 1994)
Erik Mikkelsen at Slope Indicator wanted to install piezometers along with inclinometer casing. To determine if this were feasible, he designed a test to measure the response time of a grouted-in piezometer.
The plot below shows the results from a typical test in the first series. The piezometer in air responds instantly to the increase in pressure, while the piezometer in grout responds more slowly. The time-lag for 100% response of the grouted-in piezometer increased as the grout cured. Results are shown in the table below:
Where a roof has begun to fail overall, it may be 'grouted' to extend its working life. This is not a spot repair, but an overall treatment applied to the entire roof. A thin wash of mortar or render is applied across the roof. This fills the gaps between slates and also covers the slates' surface. Grouting has two obvious visual effects: the distinct edges of the slates blur into a monolithic roof panel and also, as the grout is a pale white, paler than other building materials visible, the roof becomes much more prominent.
Grouting developed as a repair technique. A roof might have been grouted several times in its lifetime, each time the coating becoming thicker and more rounded. Eventually the weight of these extra render coats becomes too much for the structure of the roof and the roof may fail irreparably by splitting apart at the ridge.
Pembrokeshire slate is often of poor quality compared to North Wales slate, thus requires thicker, heavier slates. These heavy slates also needed to be set on a mortar bed beneath, and grouted above.
There is some debate as to the materials used to construct an 'original' grouted roof. Clearly Portland and modern cement-based renders have been used most commonly in the last century. Portland cement first appeared in the 1820s. Before this, lime plasters would have been used, particularly in rural areas where lime burning was a local industry through much of the country.
Many sources claim that lime plasters were used originally, with a move to cement renders as they became available in modern times. Others claim that the technique of grouting a roof only developed with the advent of the cheap and easily applied modern cements. Certainly the 'classic' picturesque grouted roof of today, with its bright white finish and prominent wire ridges, is the product of Victorian materials that did not exist locally until the late 19th century.
Grouted roofs came to some prominence in 2007, when comedian and architectural restorer Griff Rhys Jones began work on Trehilyn farmhouse at Llanwnda, Pembrokeshire. The building was in a poor condition throughout and the grouted roof was particularly bad. Restoration involved the construction of a new roof which, in keeping with the previous roof, was grouted during construction.
Title: Seismic performance and retrofit of precast concrete grouted sleeve connectionsDate: Winter, 2012Volume: 57Issue: 1Page number: 97-109Author(s): Andrea Belleri, Paolo Riva
The paper investigates the suitability of grouted sleeve connections as column-to-foundation connections for precast concrete structures in seismic regions. Although grouted sleeves are commonly used, the typicaladvantages from this connection have not been fully addressed in the literature. Experiments on the cyclic behavior of column-to-foundation subassemblies compared the response of grouted sleeve connections with cast-in-place and pocket-foundation connections. The results demonstrate that grouted sleeves ensure a ductility and energy dissipation capacity similar to those of traditional connections. The confinement provided by the grouted sleeves inhibits buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement and increases the compressive strength of the grout. As a consequence, the damage associated with this kind of connection is localized to the column base, allowing easier postseismic column repair compared with traditional connections. The comparison of the experimental response of a grouted sleeve connection with partly unbonded reinforcement within the sleeves and the same specimen after retrofitting is also included.
When a frame is specified to be grouted, the installation of conduit raceways in the frame for electronic wiring is a part of the frame installation process and must be done before the frame is grouted.
I would appreciate if someone help me to clarify on how SACS can handle the check for fully grouted and double-skin type joints. It seems that we have no option to indicate whether a joint is fully grouted or double-skin.
What do you mean by "fully grouted" and "double -skin" joint type? Are you talking about the chord member in a joint connection to be filled with concrete inside for "full grouted"? And a chord member with concentric tubular section for "double skin" ?
The "fully grouted" and "double skin" type is defined in your structure model as corresponding section type for chord members, then SACS will update "Qu" automatically for grouted members. For effective thickness of double skin chord, you can choose an effective thickness calculation option in joint check command.
Thanks for your time. I understand that there is only 1 way to define grouted structure by using Concentric Tubular which SACS will assume a grout of 150 pounds / f^3 and this grout will not be used for strength check.
"Double skin" can be modeled directly using concentric tubular section in SACS while "full grouted" need to be modeled equivalently using concentric tubular with 0 dimension for inner tub, or dent tubular with 0 dent depth.
If you define it as concentric tubular, the joint check will be performed based on API code requirement for grouted chord(for Qu calculation). And for "Double skin" connection, you need to select "effective thickness option" to use effective thickness per code.
ILI believes that the structural capacity of grouted walls which are otherwise unreinforced is not well understood and that the only purpose served by grouting cavities is to stiffen the wall. Grouting causes the inner and outer wall to act in concert. Cavity wall construction assumes that the outer wall and the backup will move differently, at least between columns and floors, or within an area defined by relief angles and control joints.
Differential movement aside, grouted cavity walls cannot handle internal moisture nearly as well as standard cavity construction. Further, if the cavity is grouted full, and the stone is not dampproofed, the probability of the occurrence of alkali stain is greatly increased.
Above are the results of unscrambling grouted. Using the word generator and word unscrambler for the letters G R O U T E D, we unscrambled the letters to create a list of all the words found in Scrabble, Words with Friends, and Text Twist. We found a total of 112 words by unscrambling the letters in grouted. Click these words to find out how many points they are worth, their definitions, and all the other words that can be made by unscrambling the letters from these words. If one or more words can be unscrambled with all the letters entered plus one new letter, then they will also be displayed.
The results of onshore axial and lateral pile load tests for steel pipe piles drilled and grouted into soft to medium hard calcareous clay stone are presented as well as a description of how these results may be applied to offshore pile design. This paper describes the geological conditions at the test site, the philosophy behind the testing program, the instrumentation and loading system, and the method of performing the tests. Five 0.406 meters (16 in) diameter piles were installed by a drilling and grouting technique matching as closely as possible the offshore procedures. Three were tested in tension and two in compression. Two piles were also tested laterally to high loads into the range of non-linear rock response. Further small diameter axial pile tests were performed to assess the effect of different drilling fluids on the bond strength. The emphasis of the paper is on the field test results and on the application to the offshore foundation design.
Pile tests were performed at a disused quarry, adjacent to the river Ural, and close to the Village of Zamia, Gliipuzcoa, Spain. Geotechnical conditions at this site consisted of medium hard reddish brown calcareous clays tones and are similar to those encountered at offshore locations in the Bay of Biscay, Spain. The tests comprised five axial tests on drilled and grouted steel pipe piles of 0.406 meters diameter (main-piles), being three in tension and two in compression, and nine axial tension tests on piles of 0.118 m diameter (mini-piles). Subsequent to the axial test program, cyclic lateral loading tests were performed on two of the main piles.
"Why did designers opt for grouted connections? The original Danish practice of abandoning shear keys in favour of a well-tested appropriate underwater grout was developed as a means of grouting piles into bedrock at Danish sites. 350c69d7ab